The human bone comprises of a spongy tissue known as bone marrow. It is extremely vital for the routine functioning of the human body. It is responsible for the production of plasma cells, a type of WBC or white blood cells. It may happen that a cancerous cell is formed from the many millions of plasma cells. When the number of these cancerous cells exceed the healthy cells, the condition is termed as multiple myeloma.
Initially, the patient might not find any outward sign indicating the presence of this condition. However, as the number of cancerous cells grows, the patient may start feeling signs such as pain in the bones, especially in the ribs, back, and skull. Some other signs and symptoms include:
There is no exact indicator of why this may be caused. Some researches place an emphasis on updates to the DNA. This explanation indicates that people who fit the profile will have a higher risk than others. These are the markers for identifying high-risk individuals:
A patient may be at any of the 4 stages as below
A combination of different tests and analyses will help your physician determine with certainty that you are indeed suffering from the condition. Some of the vital characteristics include a comprehensive physical examination, look at the signs and symptoms, assess the medical history and run diagnostic tests. With the help of these tests, the physician can formulate a treatment plan with successful outcomes.
The cancerous cells produce 2 types of proteins, M proteins, and beta-2-microglobulin. The presence of these proteins in your blood test will be a diagnosis for this condition. The severity of the condition too can be determined by the extent of spread or presence of these proteins in the blood. You may be advised to go through the below diagnostic tests to confirm that you are afflicted with a case of multiple myeloma.
Analysis of your urine through these tests may confirm the presence of M proteins, (or Bence Jones proteins).
If you find any of the signs of multiple myeloma, it is advised to get a complete blood test and urine analysis done. This will help the doctor confirm if you are indeed suffering from multiple myeloma or not.