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All you need to Know about Urine Test or Urinalysis

Dr Rishika Agarwal 3117 Views
Updated: 16 Jan 2024
Published: 15 Jan 2019
Urine Test or Urinalysis

Urinalysis, more commonly known as urine test, is type of a laboratory examination that helps in the detection of problems indicated by human urine. Since many disorders and diseases have influence on the body’s process of removing waste and toxins, the test can detect problems in organs associated with the human excretion system. It can diagnose problems related to the lungs, kidneys, urinary tract and bladder that have significant effects on the appearance, concentration and content of the urine.

Here is everything you need to know about urine test:  

Need of Urine Test

Urine test is often conducted before surgeries to determine the health condition of the patient. It is also used as a preemptive screening during pregnancy checkups for identifying the risk of certain birth defects in fetus. Some specific cases where urine test is essentially used in diagnosis include:

  • Kidney health and risk of diseases
  • Liver health and risk of diseases
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Diabetes

If the consulted medical experts trace signs related to any of the conditions, they can further suggest tests in future sessions for determining the progression of the condition and effectiveness of the treatment. They can also conduct urine test in cases of certain symptoms including:

  • Abdominal pain
  • Excretion of blood in urine
  • Pain during urination
  • Back pain

Urine test is also conducted as a part of routine medical and physical examinations as it is one of the most efficient ways to determine signs of certain illnesses in their early stages.

Methods of Urine Test

According to medical experts, urine sample can be tested in three ways after collection. These include:

  • Dipstick Test

During the dipstick test, the lab experts insert a chemically treated plastic stick into the urine sample and examine the color change based on the presence of certain substances. This helps them to identify:

  1. Blood
  2. Sugar (possible diabetes)
  3. Proteins
  4. Bilirubin (orange-yellow substance made during RBC breakdown)
  5. Changes in pH levels or acidity (possible urinary tract or kidney issues)

The dipstick test can also examine the urine concentration that can determine the hydration levels of the body.

  • Microscopic Test

In the microscopic test, a lab expert examines the urine sample under the microscope for determining:

  1. Abnormalities in RBC’s and WBC’s
  2. Crystals that may indicate kidney stones
  3. Infectious bacteria or yeast
  4. Epithelial that may indicate tumor

Microscopic tests can minutely examine the sample and recognize signs associated with kidney diseases, bladder cancer and blood disorders.

  • Visual Examination

In this process, the lab expert examines the urine sample for abnormalities including clouded appearance, abnormal odors and reddish or brown appearance that can indicate infections or blood in the urine respectively.

Preparing for Urine Test

According to experts, while patients undergo a urine test, they should drink appropriate amounts of water to provide enough urine sample. However, if the patient consumes excessive amounts, it may lead to inaccurate test results. Patients must also avoid changing of diet and should always make the experts aware of any medication or supplement consumption.

Medical experts claim that like thyroid test, blood test, urine test also plays an equally important role in determining the health and overall medical condition of the body.

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