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Miscarriages Due to Autoimmune Disorders- Bad Obstetric History

Dr.Ayushi Bansal 1393 Views
Updated: 21 Dec 2023
Published: 24 Nov 2023
Miscarriages Due to Autoimmune Disorders

Having a history of bad obstetric outcomes is incredibly difficult and heartbreaking. Miscarriage due to autoimmune disorders can be particularly heart-wrenching as these conditions are often beyond our control.

For anyone who has gone through multiple miscarriages due to an autoimmune disorder, the emotions accompanying such losses can be incredibly intense – whether guilt about not being able to "fix" something or feeling invalidated because others cannot relate to your experience.

In this blog post, we will discuss how people living with autoimmune disorders grapple with losing pregnancy after pregnancy, raising awareness around the frequency and complex emotional repercussions associated with recurrent miscarriage caused by autoimmune issues, and exploring possible treatments and paths forward for those struggling in this way.

We understand that these topics sometimes take time to come into the conversation and want to support anyone affected along the journey towards finding peace of mind.

What is Autoimmune Disorder?

Autoimmune Miscarriage refers to the unfortunate circumstance where the immune system mistakenly targets and attacks the developing fetus during pregnancy. This hostile immune response can result in recurrent pregnancy loss, making it a significant concern for individuals with autoimmune disorders.

Conditions such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and antiphospholipid syndrome are known culprits that can contribute to Autoimmune Miscarriage.

Signs of a Miscarriage

Recognizing autoimmune miscarriage symptoms is crucial for early intervention. Symptoms may include abnormal bleeding, abdominal pain, and recurrent miscarriages. However, these signs can overlap with other pregnancy complications, emphasizing the need for accurate diagnosis.

Painful Cramps in the Abdomen, Back, and Pelvis:

  • These are not typical pregnancy discomforts. The most intense cramps can be likened to the pain experienced during labor.
  • A miscarriage can occur rapidly or over an extended period, often with intermittent pain throughout the process.

Vaginal Bleeding or Spotting:

  • Vaginal discharge may vary in color from brownish to bright red. Spotting, on its own, does not necessarily confirm a miscarriage but could indicate an underlying concern, warranting a medical evaluation.
  • A larger volume of discharge raises concerns about a potential pregnancy loss. The presence of fetal tissue (white mass) in the release is a significant indicator of a miscarriage.

Loss of Pregnancy Symptoms:

  • Pregnancy, particularly in the first trimester, is associated with symptoms like morning sickness, dizziness, nausea, and breast tenderness. The cessation of these symptoms may suggest an unexpected termination of the pregnancy.

Passing Tissue or Clots:

  • Along with bleeding, you may pass clots or pregnancy tissue through the vagina. This can be a distressing but significant sign of a miscarriage.

Sudden Decrease in Pregnancy Hormones:

Fever and Chills:

  • In some cases, a fever and chills may accompany a miscarriage, mainly if there is an infection associated with the pregnancy loss.

Sudden Relief of Symptoms:

  • Some women report a sudden relief of pregnancy symptoms, such as breast tenderness and nausea. This abrupt cessation of symptoms may signal a miscarriage.

Emotional Changes:

  • Experiencing intense emotional distress, grief, or a sense of loss can also be a sign that something is amiss with the miscarriage autoimmune disease.

Autoimmune Disorders That Cause Miscarriage

Here are autoimmune disorders that cause miscarriage:

  • Lupus and Its Impact on Pregnancy:  Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune condition that affects multiple organs, including the skin, joints, and organs. Pregnant individuals with lupus face an increased risk of complications, including miscarriage, preterm birth, and preeclampsia.
  • Antiphospholipid Syndrome (APS):  It is a notable autoimmune disorder associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. In APS, the immune system produces antibodies that target phospholipids, a type of fat in cell membranes. This can result in blood clot formation, compromising blood flow to the developing fetus and increasing the likelihood of miscarriage. 
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis:  Another autoimmune disorder that poses challenges during pregnancy. This condition's chronic inflammation may increase the risk of miscarriage and obstetric complications.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: It is an autoimmune condition where the immune system attacks insulin-producing cells in the pancreas and has implications for pregnancy outcomes. Poorly controlled diabetes can contribute to recurrent miscarriages and fetal abnormalities. Preconception care, including optimal blood sugar control, is essential for individuals with Type 1 Diabetes planning to conceive.
  • Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP):  In pregnancy, ITP can pose challenges related to increased bleeding risk, potentially leading to miscarriages. Collaborative care involving hematologists and obstetricians is crucial in optimizing platelet levels and managing the associated risks.
  • Celiac Disease:  An autoimmune condition triggered by gluten consumption has been associated with reproductive challenges, including recurrent pregnancy loss. Gluten-induced inflammatory response can cause inflammation and malabsorption, impacting overall reproductive health. 
  • Exploring Other Autoimmune Conditions Linked to Miscarriage:  Various autoimmune conditions, such as antiphospholipid syndrome and thyroid disorders, can significantly impact pregnancy outcomes. Understanding the specific risks associated with each miscarriage autoimmune disease is essential for comprehensive care.

The Challenge of Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

  • Bad Obstetric History: Bad Obstetric History (BOH) is a term used to describe individuals who have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Autoimmune disorders contribute to BOH by heightening the risk of miscarriage across multiple pregnancies.
  • Autoimmune Disorders as a Contributing Factor: Autoimmune disorders, with their potential to disrupt the delicate balance of pregnancy, play a significant role in the challenge of recurrent pregnancy loss. Managing BOH involves addressing the underlying autoimmune factors and developing personalized care plans.

Diagnosis and Treatment Approaches

  • Diagnostic Tests for Autoimmune Miscarriage

    Accurate diagnosis is crucial for developing effective treatment plans. Specialized diagnostic tests, including antiphospholipid antibody tests and thyroid function tests, help identify underlying autoimmune factors contributing to miscarriages.

  • Tailoring Treatment Plans for Individual Cases

    Once diagnosed, treatment plans can be tailored to address specific autoimmune factors. Interventions may include immunosuppressive medications, blood-thinning agents, and close monitoring throughout pregnancy.

  • Autoimmune Disorders as a Contributing Factor

    Among the various factors contributing to recurrent pregnancy loss, autoimmune disorders emerge as significant players. The immune system, designed to protect the body, sometimes misidentifies the developing fetus as a threat, leading to a hostile response that results in miscarriage. Understanding the role of autoimmune disorders in BOH is pivotal for developing effective management strategies.

  • Impact on Emotional Well-being

    The emotional toll of recurrent pregnancy loss cannot be overstated. Each miscarriage brings a unique set of challenges, testing the emotional resilience of individuals longing for a successful pregnancy. The grief associated with BOH is complex, often compounded by feelings of inadequacy, guilt, and uncertainty about the future.

  • Navigating Medical Investigations

    Individuals grappling with recurrent pregnancy loss often embark on a journey of extensive medical investigations. These studies seek to identify underlying causes such as autoimmune problems, genetic abnormalities, hormone imbalances, or structural concerns. The procedure can be physically and emotionally exhausting, requiring patients and healthcare professionals to work together.

  • Managing Expectations and Anxiety

    One of the most formidable challenges in the face of recurrent pregnancy loss is managing expectations and anxiety during subsequent pregnancies. Fear of another miscarriage can cast a shadow over the joy that should accompany the anticipation of a new life. Health professionals are crucial in providing support and guidance to help individuals navigate the delicate balance between hope and fear.

  • Holistic Approach to Care

    Addressing the challenge of recurrent pregnancy loss necessitates a holistic approach to care. Obstetricians, reproductive immunologists, and mental health doctors all work together to develop comprehensive treatment programs. These plans may involve autoimmune illness medicines, lifestyle changes, and psychological assistance to improve general well-being.

  • Reproductive Immunology: A Specialized Field

    Reproductive immunology has emerged as a specialized field dedicated to unravelling the complexities of immune system interactions during pregnancy. Specialists in this field work closely with individuals facing recurrent pregnancy loss, conducting in-depth assessments of immune system function and tailoring interventions to mitigate the impact of autoimmune factors.

  • Empowering through Knowledge and Support

    Empowering individuals facing the challenge of recurrent pregnancy loss involves arming them with knowledge and fostering a supportive environment. Educational resources, counselling, and support groups can contribute to a sense of empowerment, helping individuals make informed decisions about their reproductive journey. The validation of their experiences and emotions is crucial in fostering resilience and hope.


In conclusion, autoimmune disorders can lead to miscarriages or other bad obstetric outcomes. This is due to naive immune cells infiltrating the uterus and resulting in pregnancy loss. It is essential to discuss this information with your doctor, who will be able to ascertain what caused it and offer the best treatment.

Hope doesn't harm, but it helps make informed medical decisions. Seeking proper medical help, monitoring conditions regularly, eating well, and resting are all integral to any person's health, irrespective of whether one suffered from miscarriages.

Self-care is key! Finally, please remember that no matter what life throws at you, there is always hope for better opportunities in the future. Appreciate every small victory while working towards your goals!

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